The exploratory activity is followed by the stage of exploitation or production, which verifies the presence of productive strata in the area. The process of extraction involves bringing usable hydrocarbons to the surface from a reservoir. While oil and gas production is a production process that includes well drilling and construction, repair, purification of produced oil from water, sulphur, paraffin, and many other complex works, exploration works are carried out by geophysical and geological search methods and are primarily of a research nature.

There are 3 general methods of oil production, depending on the pressure in the layers of the reservoir and its storage methods:

Oil extraction by the Fontan method. To briefly explain this method, it is important to keep in mind that the gas dissolved in the oil or accumulated under high pressure in the arch part of the anticlinal fold is primarily responsible for compressing the oil to the bottom of the well and frequently lifting it to the surface with great pressure. In some instances, the oil is compressed under strong pressure and brought to the surface by the water that has gathered at great height on the anticlinal fold’s wings. In essence, the power that propels the oil is the gas that comes out with it. In fresh oil fields, there may be considerable gas pressure. Oil occasionally emerges from the well with a pressure of 50 to 100 atmospheres (and more). This is referred to as the fountain of oil since ancient times. The more oil gas remains in the reservoir, the longer the well will pump.

Oil extraction by compressor method. After a given amount of time, the pressure in the producing formation decreases, and the pressure of natural gas or formation water is no longer adequate to lift the oil to the surface. This happens after the well strikes the fountain. As a result, the well’s fountain is turned off. If the Fontan era is thought of as the well’s formative years, the succeeding era is thought of as the well’s maturation years. Right now, the compressor approach is the best way to operate an oil well. Through the pipe or pipes (2 units) dropped from the compressor unit, compressed air or oil gas is pumped into the well at high pressure. At this point, the oil is raised by compressed air. oil extraction through compressed air is called airlift, and extraction with compressed gas is called gaslift. Compressor extraction of oil was widespread in the former Soviet Union.

Oil extraction by means of deep pumps. In order to extract oil using a compressor, a lot of compressed air or gas must be used in order to extract a tiny amount of oil as the well operates, lowering the formation pressure and oil level to an unfavorable level. It takes a lot of effort to purchase them. Therefore, in such circumstances, they turn to employing a depth pump instead of operating the well using the compressor approach. With this, the well’s aging process starts. Pump pipelines with submersible pumps attached to the ends are lowered into the well’s bottom. The pump piston (also known as the “plunger”) is attached to the rods and the upper end of the rods is connected to the crankcase. When the electric motor drives the crank, the rods inside the pump tubes move up. At this time, the impact valve above the plunger closes and the plunger lifts the oil inside the pump tubes. Submersible pumps are more suitable for operating wells with low oil levels.